UNFPA began its partnership with Indonesia in 1971. Today, UNFPA is one of the Government of Indonesia’s most important partners in addressing reproductive health, gender equality, and population issues. As the world’s fourth most populous country, Indonesia remains a priority country for UNFPA globally, but the terms of UNFPA’s engagement are changing in light of the progress achieved and Indonesia’s evolving population dynamics and development status.
The success of Indonesia’s national family planning programme has been internationally recognized. The total fertility rate has declined from 5.6 in the late 1960s to a current figure of 2.6. The contraceptive prevalence rate for modern methods increased substantially from 18 percent in 1976 to 57 percent in 2007. The results have been so successful that over the past ten years support for the national family planning programme transition to full government funding. However, there continue to be challenges with unmet needs for contraception, and the contraceptive prevalence rate has stagnated. To address this, the National Population and Family Planning Board (BKKBN) and UNFPA are collaborating on a comprehensive revitalization process for the national family planning programme.
Indonesia has experienced profound social, political and economic changes since changes to the centralized government structure after 1998. Democratic reforms have served to establish direct elections for government executives and legislators at national and local levels, while decentralization has transferred significant responsibilities for managing development and resources to regions and districts.
Indonesia has become one of Asia’s most vibrant and decentralized democracies. In 2009, 21 partners, including all major donors, signed the Jakarta Commitment - Indonesia’s Road Map for Development Effectiveness, which redefined relationships between the Government of Indonesia (GoI) and development partners. The Jakarta Commitment sets out:
An archipelago state consisting of more than 17,000 islands with an ethnically diverse population of over 240 million, Indonesia has achieved relative political and macroeconomic stability. It has graduated to the lower Middle Income Country (MIC) status, is a member of the G20, and appears to have weathered the worst effects of global financial and economic crises. Unemployment has dropped from a peak of 11 percent in 2005 to just over 8 percent in 2009 and poverty rates, while still high, have gradually decreased. Indonesia ranks 111 out of 177 countries in the 2009 Global Human Development Report. The 2009-10 global competitiveness report ranked Indonesia 54 out of 133 countries, still well behind Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia, India and China, but ahead of Brazil and Mexico.
The population situation in Indonesia is changing rapidly, and is characterized by declining fertility, increasing life expectancies, and accelerated migration to urban areas. Family planning, maternal health, and HIV-prevention remain highly relevant and figure prominently in UNFPA’s work in Indonesia, along with the continuing focus of these programmes on women and youth. Ageing, climate change, and the use of population data in planning evidence-based policy responses by governments and civil society organizations are also part of UNFPA’s work in Indonesia.
Along with shifts in the composition and distribution of Indonesia’s population, the country is getting wealthier and education levels are increasing. Indonesia has shown significant progress in both social and economic development in the past 10 years. Indonesia’s emergence as a middle-income country means that UNFPA is changing the way it operates in a country that no longer requires service delivery support. UNFPA’s work in Indonesia now focuses on upstream policy dialogue, advocacy, knowledge management and South-South cooperation.
Development Planning Framework
UNFPA’s country programme operates within the Government of Indonesia’s national development framework.
Indonesia’s Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN) 2010-2014 focuses on equity through ‘development for all’, with no groups left behind. The RPJMN is an inclusive development strategy for wealth creation at all levels of society, based on equity, justice and diversity. It has a strong territorial dimension, placing emphasis on the development of regional capacities within an integrated national economy. The plan also promotes the development of human resources, talents and skills by focusing on improvements in access to and quality of education, health, social protection and living conditions for the most vulnerable. Special attention is given to South-South learning and knowledge exchange.
The RPJMN identifies 11 priorities:
The three cross cutting principles set out in the RPJMN are: 1) politics law and security; 2) economy; and 3) people’s welfare.
The RPJMN also calls for three mainstreaming perspectives as the operational foundations of overall development implementation: 1) sustainable development; 2) good governance; and 3) gender equality.
The current RPJMN 2010-2014 is the third phase of the National Long-Term Development Plan 2005-2025 (RPJPN). The RPJPN is the highest level government planning framework and is divided into four stages, each with a lifespan of five years, RPJMNs. Through these medium-term plans the various governments are able to set their own priorities in the process of national economic development. The next president and government of Indonesia, who will be elected in 2014, will add their own vision and priorities to the next RPJMN 2015-2019.