Country Program Action Plan Output:

Strengthened national capacity to advocate ICPD principles, MDGs and South-South Cooperation.


The ICPD and MDGs in Indonesia

The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) was a milestone in the history of population and development, as well as for women’s rights. The ICPD Programme of Action set out to:


  • Provide universal access to family planning, sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and reproductive rights;
  • Deliver gender equality, empowerment of women and equal access to education for girls;
  • Address the individual, social and economic impacts of urbanization and migration; and
  • Support sustainable development, including by addressing environmental issues associated with population changes.


In 2000, eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were developed to provide a time-bound blueprint for reducing poverty and improving lives worldwide. The majority of these goals reflect the ICPD principles. The ongoing work of the ICPD Programme of Action contributes to the achievement of MDG targets.

The Government of Indonesia is a signatory to both the ICPD Programme of Action and the MDGs, and has provided long-term support for their agendas.


Progress has been made on key ICPD and MDG issues in Indonesia, including by raising the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) to around 60%, making efforts to address the HIV epidemic, introducing frameworks to address gender-based violence (GBV) and improving population data. Despite this progress, there is a sense of unfinished business on ICPD issues in areas such as reaching the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) target, reducing inequity, revitalizing family planning, improving access to and services for sexual and reproductive health (SRH) for young people, and improving gender equality. In addition, Indonesia is unlikely to meet the MDGs related to maternal health (MDG5) and HIV/AIDS (MDG6) by the target of 2015.


With the 20-year period of the ICPD Programme of Action ending in 2014 and the MDG targets due in 2015, UNFPA is now supporting the Government of Indonesia in defining the Post-2015 Development Agenda. This work aims to ensure that the key issues related to population, SRH, gender equality and youth are appropriately and adequately addressed in future global approaches to development.


The goals of the ICPD are based on the fundamental idea that increasing social, economic and political equality, including SRH, is the basis for individual wellbeing, lower population growth and sustainable development. The aim of the ICPD Programme of Action is to improve outcomes in several areas related to sexual and reproductive health including maternal health, family planning, prevention and treatment of HIV, adolescent reproductive health, and addressing gender-based violence.


UNFPA has conducted reviews of the ICPD at global, regional and national levels. In Indonesia, the ICPD Beyond 2014 Review found that there are still challenges on several issues regarding sexual and reproductive health, including maternal mortality, family planning, gender equality, adolescent sexual and reproductive health, and HIV.