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Indonesia’s family planning program has been recognized as one of the key international successes in national-level interventions on reproductive health. During the past 40 years, Indonesia has achieved a significant drop in the total fertility rate from 5.6 in the late 1960s to a current rate of 2.3.1 The use of contraceptives among adults of reproductive age rose steadily from 18.3% in 1976 to 61.4% in 2007. 2 This can be directly credited to the family planning program founded in 1970 under the auspices of the National Family Planning Coordination Board (BKKBN – now the National Population and Family Planning Board) with the goals of addressing rapid population growth leading to economic progress and improving the health and quality of life for citizens.

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The Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) in Indonesia is higher than those of neighboring countries in ASEAN. It is estimated that 20,000 women die from complications of pregnancy or childbirth per fi ve million births each year. According to a UNDP report, the risk of maternal death in Indonesia is 1 in 65 mothers, compared to 1 in1,100 mothers in Thailand. To reduce maternal death, it is necessary to examine the causes of maternal death. Much information on the causes of death has been obtained, but this has not been adequately analyzed by region, despite the disparities among regions. Such information is very important because different health statuses require different interventions. Therefore, the National Institute of Health Research and Development (Balitbangkes), under the Ministry of Health, in collaboration with BPS-Statistics Indonesia and University of Indonesia conducted the SP2010 Follow-up Study and Review Maternal Mortality Determinant in fi ve regions in order to obtain information on the causes of maternal deaths.

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Climate change is about people as well as climate. During the last 20 years climate scientists have confirmed that global warming over the last century is “unequivocal” and that human activities are “very likely” the major cause (iPcc 2007). it is important now to study in more depth the anthropogenic causes and consequences of climatechange. many of these are grounded in demographic change (o’neillet al. 2010).

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Reproductive health is defined as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being,and not merely the absence of reproductive disease or infirmity [7]. The implications of this definition are far-reaching. Addressing RH demands a comprehensive approach that accounts for physical, mental, and social well-being, rather than focusing singularly on RH-related disease and deaths.

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Recalling also the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the obligations of States parties to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination and the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families.

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Nations like the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Finland, where fertility is lower and childbearing later than in most other parts of the world, are look-ing for ways to support women who have more children. Nations like Ethiopia and India have launched campaigns to end child marriages and prevent life-threatening adolescent pregnancies.

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Over the past five years, the context of Indonesia’s development cooperation has changed as a consequence of the nation’s emergence as a middle income country. This will present significant changes in UNFPA country programming in Indonesia as it enters its eighth cycle for the next five years, particularly in a re-orientation of programme design and strategies as well as in the working modality of the UNFPA Country Office vis-à-vis its partners in the country.

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The Government of indonesia has for several years been developing a national strategy to respond to climate change, and the UN has been partnering with the Government within the United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change (UNFCCC). the Ministry of environment (Klh), in consultation with relevant line ministries and agencies, produced the National Action Plan Addressing Climate Changein November 2007. in July 2008 the president established the National Council on Climate Change (dNpi) to help direct and coordinate the Government’s response to climate change, with himself as Chair and the Minister of environment as executive Chair. in december 2009 the National development planning Agency (Bappenas), following another extensive consultation process, produced the Indonesia Climate Change Sectoral Roadmap (iCCSR), which was then incorporated in the Government’s current 5-Year development plan (RpJMN 2010-14).

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In October 2011, Earth’s population reaches 7 billion. This global milestone is both a great opportunity and a great challenge. Although people are living longer and healthier lives, and couples worldwide are choosing to have fewer children, huge inequities persist. The current pace of growth is adding about 78 million more people every year-the population of Canada , Australia , Greece and Portugal combined [1] Nearly all that growth-97 of every 100 people is occurring in less developed countries, some of which already struggle to meet their people’s needs. Gaps between rich and poor are growing. And more people than ever are vulnerable to food insecurity, water shortages, and weather-related disasters. Meanwhile, many rich and middle-income countries are concerned about low fertility, declining populations and ageing. Whether we can live together on a healthy planet will depend on the decisions we make. 

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